Did you know the original Indian Constitution was not
The Indian constitution was handwritten in both Hindi and English. It
was penned down by Prem Behari Narain Raizada using flowing italic style calligraphy. Each page was
decorated by artists from Shantiniketan. This constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 but it was
fully commenced on 26th January 1950. In the original constitution, there were 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, 22
Parts and a Preamble. It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to be framed. Now, it has 465 articles, 12
Schedules and 25 Parts. Did you know it is the longest handwritten constitution in the world?
The depiction of a witch riding a broomstick goes a long way back.
Thanks to those cartoons and movies that scared the pants off us. But what's the origin of the association
of broomsticks with witches? Well, the first G-rated answer to this is that back in those days brooms were a
symbol of female domesticity. Women generally were responsible for raising children, cooking and upkeep of
their homes. They always had their broomsticks as a constant companion. So, when people started claiming
others as witches, brooms were thought of as the distinguished tool of the trade.
A village found in Kerela named Kodinhi continues to be a mystery to
researchers. This village has the largest number of twins in Asia and holds a Guiness World Record. The
national average of twins is not more than 9 in 1000 births. But in Kodinhi, the number is as high as 45 in
1000 births. This rate of birth is increasing every year. Besides twins, triplets and quadruplets are also
found. Researchers are trying to identify this unique reason by taking soil and water samples of Kodinhi.
Friendship day is celebrated in various countries of the world. On 20th
July 1958, Paraguay, first it was proposed as international friendship day by Dr Ramon Artemio Bracho.
Later, The World Friendship Crusade Foundation celebrated it on 30 July, which promotes humanity and
fellowship regardless of any caste and creed. But In India, Singapore, Malaysia and UAE it is celebrated on
the first Sunday of August every year. Traditionally, gifts, bands and cards are exchanged between
youngsters on this friendship day. The friendship bands are popular in India and some parts of South
Which machine from 1936 is as powerful as a modern day
In 1936, Alan Turing developed an abstract machine called the Turing
Machine. It has an infinite memory tape to only read and write data. In the Turing Thesis, he proposed that
his machine could do anything that can be done by any computer. In fact, any computation done by mechanical
means can be performed by a Turing Machine. Even for the most complex algorithms, there exists a
corresponding Turing machine algorithm. Till today, no one could prove or deny him. Since we never proved
him wrong, we started believing he is right. The global challenge is to create a problem that the machine
World's hottest pepper is continuously changing as new varieties are
either created or discovered. As of, Carolina reaper is the worlds hottest pepper. It is a crossbred between
a Ghost pepper and a Red Habanero which is insanely hot. Another, Naga Viper, is an extremely rare hybrid
pepper. Then comes the Moruga Scorpion, a formidable pepper, which was recently discovered in the lands of
Moruga. Until 2007, Ghost pepper was the hottest pepper mostly grown in North East India. Due to their
extremely hot pungency, these chillies are not advisable for peoples consumption.
Kopi luwak is the most expensive coffee in the world produced mainly in
Indonesia, East Timor, the Philipines, Vietnam, Thailand and Ethiopia. The coffee cherries are partially
digested and defecated by an Asian palm civet cat. The coffee cherries are subjected to acidic, enzymatic
and fermentation treatment as they pass through a civet's intestine. The limited supply with its high demand
and unique method of production makes it much more valuable in the market. The annual Kopi luwak production
is less than 150 kg, and the retail price of 1 kg of this coffee is about $700.
The cuckoo bird portrays a perfect example of egg mimicry. Egg mimicry
is a process where the host depends on other species to raise its young. Cuckoo bird uses the crow's nest.
In this way, they spare themselves the effort of building nests and raising their young ones. Once the young
ones get hatched, they remove the host egg one by one within their hatching days. Cuckoo chicks are then
desperately fed by their unwitting foster parents assuming it to be their own young ones. This behaviour has
been witnessed in fish and insects also.
Harry Potter series is one of the best-selling book series of all time
selling more than 500 million copies despite being banned due to religious conflicts in America. Characters
in this book drew inspiration from events in the author's everyday life. Harry Potter shares JK Rowling's
birthday. She liked to invent unusual names for the characters. The names of the Houses of Hogwarts were
created on the back of an aeroplane's sick bag. After her mother died, she suffered from depression. That's
how she portrayed Harry Potter's dementors character as creepy creatures that feed on human emotion.
Donald Duck is the most loved and famous cartoon character of all
times. Walt Disney was inspired by a voice actor who recites songs in his angry and agitated duck voice.
This duck voice created the Donald Duck character that was more negative than Mickey Mouse. More
interestingly Donald Duck has a middle name- Donald “Fauntleroy” Duck. He is the only Disney character who
has an official middle name. Donald wears a sailor’s hat and a shirt with a red bow because ducks are
similar to sailors as they both stay and work in water.
Cheese is the most stolen food in the world, and it has a higher
propensity of being stolen than chocolates or alcohol. Interestingly, over 4% of all the total cheese made
globally gets shoplifted. Well, cheese is valuable, always in high demand, and available in small and mobile
formats that are easy to conceal. It is a lucrative business opportunity as there exists a large black
market for stolen cheese, where stolen cheese is sold to restaurants. Most retailers have recently started
using security tags on cheese to prevent it from getting stolen.
Wasabi is a plant species belonging to the same family as horseradish
and mustard. It mostly grows along the stream beds in mountain river valleys of Japan. Its limited
cultivation and unavailability outside Japan make it expensive. Wasabi is grated, dried and made into a
paste. It is available in toothpaste-like tubes and used extensively in sushi preparation. "Wasabi-mame" is
a crunchy snack made from legumes that are roasted, dried and coated with wasabi powder. It has a sharp and
spicy taste. Due to its intense aroma, wasabi vapour is used to create a smoke alarm for deaf people.
Maria Sibylla was born in Germany in 1647. She combined art and science
to become one of the great Scientific Illustrator and Entomologist of all times. Maria was particularly
interested in caterpillars and butterflies. At that time, most people thought insects were disgusting and
not worth of study. But Maria, at a young age, started collecting insects to learn how they behaved. She
painted the different life stages of insects. The "Metamorphosis of the Insects of Suriname" was published
in 1705 and became a hit all over Europe. Maria’s detailed illustrations amaze people to this day.
Dolphins are mammals. Unlike us, their breathing is a voluntary
process, which means that dolphins only breathe when their blowholes are out of the water, and it's safe to
do so. If they enter deep sleep, they might not be able to know when to breathe. So, they have developed a
couple of ways to handle sleeping. When a dolphin sleeps, only half of its brain goes to sleep at any one
time; the other half of the brain stays awake and takes care of its breathing. Interestingly, dolphins sleep
with one eye open.
What is the longest religiously burning lamp in the world?
In 1528 (1450 Saka), Guru Madhavdeva lit an earthen lamp in a
Vaishnavite monastery in Jorhat, Assam - 'Dhekiakhowa Bor Namghar'. Since then, the flame has kept burning
continuously without interruption. People religiously refuel the lamp to continue its saga. The lamp also
set a national record for burning for the longest duration - around 500 years and can enter the Guinness
Book of World Records as well. Interestingly, Guru Madhavdeva once took shelter for the night in the hut of
an old woman who served him with a fern 'Dhekia'. Pleased by the taste, he built a monastery there and gave
her the responsibility of the historic lamp.
In Melbourne, turbulent weather changes that occur within an hour can
drive you nuts! This is because of its unique geographical position. Australia is separated from Antarctica
only by ocean and hence cold air flows in unhindered into Melbourne. The hot desert wind from Central
Australia strikes the mountain ranges on the West and East Australia. This concentrates the hot wind to blow
either towards or away from Melbourne. When hot air blows towards Melbourne, we get heatwaves of over 40°C.
The intersection of hot desert winds and cold Antarctica air creates ‘Four Seasons in a Day’ in Melbourne.
Do you know why we say cheers with 'clunk' sound of the glasses? Do
you know the reason behind that? We do this when we are celebrating some occasion or having a good time. So
when we drink, we can 'see' the drink, 'smell' the drink, 'touch' the drink, 'taste' the drink. The only
sense organ that doesn't come in the picture is the ear and hence the clunk sound so that we can 'hear' the
sound and the happy occasion is now a culmination of all the five senses.
According to the World Happiness Report released by the United
Nations on March 20, 2020, Finland has been ranked as the happiest country in the world for the third
consecutive year followed by Denmark and Switzerland. Ranked at 144, India occupied the bottom ten spots of
the report. The World Happiness Report is a survey which grades countries using the Gallup World poll and
other factors such as levels of GDP, life expectancy, generosity, social support, freedom and corruption